Table Index

Table 1
Phases of ADDIE Model

The process of defining what is to be learned
Needs Analysis
Task Analysis
Context Analysis
Performance Analysis
Resource Analysis
The process of specifying how it is to be learned
Write objectives
Develop Assessments
Plan Instruction
The process of authoring and producing the materials
Gather existing materials
Develop new materials
Work with media
Formative Evaluation
The process of installing the project in the real world context
Train instructors
Plan resources allocation
Develop maintenance system
The process of determining the impact of the instruction
Summative Evaluation

Adopted from Seels and Glasgow, 1998


Table 2
Adopter Category Descriptions

Adopter Category Characteristics
Innovators (first 2.5% of adopters) Innovators are active information seekers with a high degree of media exposure and wide interpersonal networks.
Early Adopters (second 13.5% of adopters) Early adopters have the highest degree of opinion leadership in most social systems. They are able to communicate a subjective evaluation of innovation to peers through interpersonal communication channels.
Early Majority (third 34% of adopters) Early majority members adopt new ideas just before the average members of the group and may deliberate for some time before completely adopting a new idea.
Late Majority (fourth 34% of adopters) Late majority members adopt new ideas just after the average members of the social system and approach innovation with a skeptical and cautious air. Often peer pressure is needed for this group to adopt.
Laggards (last 16% of adopters) Laggards possess no opinion leadership within the group and are often isolated from other members of systems. Many time laggards do not adopt innovations until after they have been replaced by newer innovations.

Adopted from Rogers, 1995

Table 3
Evaluation Levels

Level of Evaluation Description
Program Program evaluation assesses the educational activities that provide services on a continuing basis and often involve curricular offerings. This may include a degree program or ongoing training program.
Project Project evaluation assesses activities that are funded for a defined period of time to perform a specific task. Projects may include training for new technologies in an office or an instructional module for a specific need.
Materials Materials evaluation assesses the merit or worth of content related physical items. This includes websites or manuals designed for programs or project.

Adopted from Seels and Richey, 1994

Table 4
TNA Purposes

Purposes of TNA Description
Optimals  These are the desired knowledge or performance in its ideal form. 
Actuals  The existing knowledge and/or performance in the setting. 
Feelings  Opinions about the problem or task from various sources within the organization. 
Causes  Information about what various sources think is contributing to the problem. 
Solutions   This is information about ways to end or diminish the problem. 

Adopted from Rossett, 1987

Table 5
TNA Techniques

Techniques Description
Extant Data Analysis The information that the company collects that represents the results of employee performance. This data already exists and should be made available by the organization.
Needs Assessment Step within overall topic of training needs assessment that involves the way opinions on purposes of TNA are sought.
Subject Matter Analysis The process in which the trainer or instructional developers seek the nature and shape of bodies of knowledge which employees need to possess to do their jobs effectively. This information concerns the knowledge the learners must know in order to perform the tasks.

Adopted from Rossett, 1987

Table 6
Types of Criterion-Referenced Tests

Type of Criterion-Referenced Test Purpose
Entry Behaviors Test This test is given to learners before they begin instruction in order to assess their mastery of the prerequisite skills needed for the unit of instruction.
Pretest Pretests are meant to profile learners with regard to the instructional analysis by determining what knowledge and skills they have mastered that are to be included in the instruction. The primary purpose is not for posttest comparison although that is often used in summative evaluation.
Practice Tests These tests provide learners an opportunity to practice the knowledge and skills during instruction. They encourage active learner participation and allow learners to evaluate their own performance during the instruction.
Posttests Posttests are given following instruction and measure the objectives included in the instruction especially the terminal objective. It is meant to assess learner performance and may be used to identify specific areas where the instruction is not working.

Adopted from Dick, Carey, and Carey, 2005

Table 7
Summative Evaluation Phases

Phase Description
Expert Judgment During this phase evaluators determine whether instruction has the potential for meeting the needs of the organization as they were defined in the needs assessment. Activities include congruence analysis, content analysis, design analysis, and feasibility analysis.
Field Trial Field trials document the effectiveness of instruction with target group members in the intended instructional and performance settings. Activities include outcomes analysis, impact on learners, impact on job, impact on organization, and management analysis.

Adopted from Dick, Carey, and Carey, 2001

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